The Plains Anthropological Society promotes the study of the peoples and cultures of the North American Great Plains. The Society supports the growth of knowledge concerning the physical, cultural, archaeological and linguistic variation and evolution of Plains societies. The organization disseminates research results through publication of the Plains Anthropologist, a quarterly, peer-reviewed academic journal and memoir series, and through the exchange of information and ideas at its annual conference. The Society actively encourages and recognizes excellence in scholarship, service to the anthropological community and the maintenance of research collections.

The Plains Anthropological Society is incorporated as a nonprofit organization and recognized as tax exempt under IRS Code, Section 501(c)(3).